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Present situation and development of oil pipeline system

Composition of oil pipeline system

Long distance oil pipeline consists of two main parts: the oil transportation station and the pipeline.

oil transportation station

oil pipeline systemThe starting point of the pipeline is an oil transportation station, known as "the first station", after the crude oil is collected and calculated, the first station provides power to transport to the downstream pipeline. The first station is generally arranged with oil storage tanks, oil pump and oil metering device. Oil pumps provide power to make the oil moved along the pipeline to the terminal or the next level of oil transportation station. Under normal circumstances, due to the long distance, the energy loss of transporting process is obvious, it’s need multilevel oil stations to provide power until crude oil sent to terminal. The end of the oil station known as "terminal station", mainly responsible for collecting material transported from the upstream pipeline, therefore equipped with many tanks and metering system.


Long distance oil pipeline is welded by steel pipe. An insulating layer is wrapped outside the tube to prevent corrosion of the chemical composition in the soil. The internal pipeline can be also coated with anti corrosive material to reduce the corrosion in the transmission of oil and improve the smoothness of the pipeline for large transportation quantity. Every certain distance or across a large obstacle, the pipeline is equipped with a valve to prevent the expansion of the accident and convenient to maintain equipment.

The specification and application of the pipeline

The main pipe used in oil pipeline is carbon steel pipe. According to the manufacturing process, it can be divided into seamless steel pipe and welded steel pipe. Seamless steel pipe has high strength and a variety of specifications, so it is applicable to the strong corrosive oil or transport under high temperature conditions. Welded steel pipe is easy to become brittle at low temperature, so it is applicable to the normal temperature pipeline.

the specification and application of the pipeline

Outside diameter of the pipe is typically expressed in the letter D and appended outside diameter values, such as: outer diameter of 400mm pipes for the D400 said; the inner diameter of the pipe with letter d said, followed by diameter values, such as diameter steel pipe of 300 said d300; specifications of the steel pipe is generally used "Φ outer diameter×wall thickness", such as diameter of 400mm, the wall thickness is 6mm diameter pipeline said Φ400×6.

The common forms of the pipeline layout are the following: Single pipe system, double pipe system, independent pipeline system. In order to reduce the resistance, generally try to take a straight line, there are three kinds laying methods, ground, pipe ditch and underground.

Development Suggestions

pipeline development

Development Direction

Normal temperature transportation technology

With the increase of the oil production and the exploitation of crude oil to the deep sea, all countries attach great importance to the research on the transportation and flow security technology of waxy oil.

Pipeline monitoring technology

pipeline technologyEarly warning technology, divided into field type monitoring and sensing monitoring, is becoming a developed pipeline monitoring technology in twenty-first Century. Field type monitoring focus on monitoring people's entry can only be used for a short period of time. Sensing monitoring focus on monitoring can be used for long distance and long time monitoring. These monitoring are affected by various factors, so that they has been subjected by a variety of technical limitations in application. It shows that these monitoring methods need further research.

Other Technologies

The technology of batching transportation of cool and hot oil

If different types of crude oil using mixed transport will make the physical properties of crude oil changed, it increases the difficulty to the downstream enterprise, so there has been the technology of batching transportation of cool and hot oil. As a new transportation technology demanding strongly, it is very worthy of research and apply.

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